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Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 22

Spode/Copeland Transfer-Printed Patterns Found at 20 Hudson's Bay Company Sites

by Lynne Sussman

Appendix C. Maker's Marks on Spode/Copeland Transfer-Printed Ceramics Recovered from 20 Hudson's Bay Company Sites.

Spode Marks

See Figure 250.

a Printed mark used until the end of the Spode period in 1833 (Whiter 1970; 225).

b Impressed mark used until the end of the Spode period in 1833. It is distinguished from earlier Spode marks by the serifs on the capital S (Whiter 1970; 225).

250 Maker's marks on transfer-printed patterns recovered from 20 Hudson's Bay Company sites. (Drawing by G. Laframboise.) (click on image for a PDF version)

Copeland and Garrett Marks

See Figure 250.

All Copeland and Garrett marks are datable to the period 1833 to 1847.

c Printed and impressed mark.

d Printed and impressed mark. "New Blanche" is the name of the body (fabric).

e Printed mark. "Alba" is the name of a body.

f Printed mark. "New Fayence" refers to a body. n is an impressed variation of this mark.

g Printed mark.

h Printed mark. The banner with "Saxon Blue" refers to the colour of the transfer print. This mark is very rare and has to date been associated with only one pattern, Lily.

i—j Printed marks.

k—n Impressed marks.

o Printed mark. Although this mark has only been found on objects made by Copeland and Garrett, it appears on copper plates designed during the W.T. Copeland period.

W.T. Copeland (and Sons) Marks

See Figure 250.

It is less easy to assign terminal dates to the marks used during the W.T. Copeland period than to those used during the Spode or Copeland and Garrett periods.

p—t These printed marks are generally given the date range 1847-67 (Godden 1964: 171) and archaeological evidence supports this range.

u Printed mark used from 1851 to 1890 (Godden 1964: 171).

v—y Impressed marks used during the W.T. Copeland period, 1847-67, and during the subsequent W.T. Copeland and Sons period. Each of these marks has been found at least once in combination with an impressed date mark (aa). These date marks were introduced in 1870 (Copeland: pers. com.).

z Printed mark used by W.T. Copeland and Sons, 1867-90 (Godden 1964: 171).

aa Impressed date mark. The numbers refer to the last two numbers of the year and the letter refers to the month: J, January; F, February; M, March; A, April; Y, May; U, June; L, July; T, August; S, September; O, October; N, November; D, December. This marking system was introduced in 1870 and discontinued in 1970.

bb Printed mark used by W.T. Copeland and Sons after 1891.

251 Smart's store, Battleford, Saskatchewan, by S.P. Hall, circa 1881. This privately owned store is typical of the general store and trading post of the 19th century and is similar to Hudson's Bay Company stores of this period. It was in such a setting that the printed ceramics illustrated in this catalogue were sold. (Public Archives Canada, C-12984.)

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