Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 17
The Halifax Citadel, 1825-60: A Narrative and Structural History
by John Joseph Greenough
Akins, Thomas Beamish
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Historical Society, Vol. 8 (1892-94). Halifax.
Baker, Raymond F
"The Early Citadels at Halifax," Manuscript on file, National
Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1966.
Britain and the Balance of Power in British North America,
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Burgoyne, Sir John Fox
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The Military Opinions of General Sir John Fox Burgoyne, Ed.
Capt. George Wrottesley, R. Bentley, London, 1859.
Canada. Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. National Historic
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"Report on Restoration of the Halifax Citadel (Fort George) Prepared
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Canada. Public Archives.
MG12, B, WO44, War Office Papers. Ordnance Office In-Letters,
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RG8, 1, C series, British Military and Naval Records, especially
Vols. 1338-47, Military Correspondence, Nova Scotia command, 1920-26;
Vol. 1349, Military Secretary's confidential letterbook, Nova Scotia
command, 1851-71; Vol. 1348A, confidential letterbooks, Nova Scotia
command, 1862-90; Vols. 1355-71, Military Correspondence, Nova Scotia
command, 1827-70; Vols. 1376-84, Military Correspondence, Halifax
command, 1862-70; Vols. 1429-31 letterbook, Royal Engineers office,
Halifax, 1855-65; Vols. 1435-7, letterbooks, Royal Engineers office,
Halifax, letters to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 1857- 66;
Vol. 1444, reports and estimates, Royal Engineers office, Halifax,
1842-49; Vol. 1445, special estimates and abstracts of annual estimates,
1840-65; Vol. 1447, letterbook, letters relating to land; Vol. 1448,
Land Book, Royal Engineers Office, Halifax, 1837-73; Vol. 1449,
memoranda relating to tenders, 1857-64; Vols. 1527-8, letters from
England, Halifax, 1849-57; Vols. 1648-9, Fortifications, English
letters, Nova Scotia command, 1858-63; Vols. 1650-1, Fortifications,
local letters, Nova Scotia command, 1858-65; Vol. 1653, Fortifications
and barracks estimates, 1843-44; Vol. 1653A, Fortifications and civil
buildings estimates, 1859-70; Vol. 1654, inspectional report, 1962-63;
Vol. 1655, letters from England, 1866-67; Vol. 1823, War department
lands in Nova Scotia, 1855-64; Vol. 1825, Royal Engineers, Halifax and
out-stations, letters received, 1847-51; Vols. 1839-40, letters from the
Ordnance department, 1850-56.
RG8, II, Ordnance records, especially Vols. 6, parts 1 and 2,
commissioners' report, 1825 (Smyth Report); Vol. 18, commissioners'
report on the defence of Canada, 1862; Vol. 20, Jervois report on the
defence of Canada, 1864; Vol. 86, Jervois report on the defence of
British naval stations in North America, 1864.
Clode, Charles Mathew
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Government. John Murray, London, 1869. 2 vols.
"Excavation Report; Halifax Citadel Moat, Site 28." Manuscript on
file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1965.
Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander
Inventory of Military Documents in the Canadian Archives.
King's Printer, Ottawa, 1910.
Dictionary of Canadian Biography
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1966. Vol. 10
Dictionary of National Biography
Ed. Leslie Stephen, Smith Elder, London, 1885-1900. 58 vols. Vols. 11
Douglas, Sir Howard
Observations on Modern Systems of Fortifications Including that
Proposed by M. Carnot, and a Comparison of the Polygonal with the
Bastion System; to which are added, Some Reflections on Intrenched
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England. John Murray, London. 1859.
History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Compiled from the
Original Records. John Murray, London, 1879. 2 vols.
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Roll of Officers of the Corps of Royal Engineers from 1660 to
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Chatham. Royal Engineers Institute, Chatham, 1898.
A History of the Army Ordnance Services. Medici Society,
London, 1929. 3 vols.
Fortescue, John William
A History of the British Army. 2d ed. Macmillan, London and
New York, 1910. 13 vols.
Graham, Gerald S.
Empire of the North Atlantic: The Maritime Struggle for North
America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1950.
Great Britain. Army. Corps of Royal Engineers.
Aide-Memoire to the Military Sciences. Framed from Contributions
of Officers of the Different Services. J. Weale, London, 1846-52. 6
Corps Papers, and Memoirs on Military Subjects; Compiled from
Contributions of the Officers of the Royal Engineers and the East India
Company's Engineers. 3rd Series. J. Weale, London, 1849-50.
Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal
Engineers. 2d ed. J. Weale, London, 1844. 10 vols.
Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal
Engineers, n.s. J. Weale, London and Woolwich, 1851-76. 23 vols.
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The Parliamentary Debates; Forming a Continuation of the Work
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Reports from Committees. . . ., 1828, Vol. 5. H.M.S.O.,
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WO47, minute books of the Board of Ordnance, Vols. 1434 and 1530;
WO49, accounts, Vol. 2, part 1.
Haliburton, Thomas Chandler
An Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia in Two
Volumes. J. Howe, Halifax, 1829.
Hamilton, C. F.
"Defense, 1812-1912." in Adam Shortt and Sir Arthur George Doughty,
eds., Canada and its Provinces: A History of the Canadian People and
Their Institutions, by One Hundred Associates, Vol. 7, pp. 379-471.
Edinburgh University Press for the Publishers' Association of Canada.
Toronto, 1913-15. 23 vols.
Harvey, D. C.
"Halifax, 1749-1949," Canadian Geographical Journal, Vol. 38
(1949), pp. 6-37. Ottawa.
Headlam, John Emerson Wharton and Sir Charles Callwell
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Hitsman, John Mackay
Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871. University of Toronto Press,
Hughes, Basil Perronet
British Smooth-Bore Artillery: The Mussle-Loading Artillery of the
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Jervois, William Francis Drummond
"Observations Relating to the Works in Progress and Proposed for the
Defence of the Naval Ports, Arsenals and Dockyards," Papers on
Subjects Relating to the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers,
n.s., Vol. 9 (1860), pp. 129-36. Chatham.
Jebb, Sir Joshua
Practical Treatise on Strengthening and Defending Outposts,
Villages, Houses, Bridges, etc., in Reference to the Duties of Officers
in Command of Picquets, as Laid Down in the Field Exercise and
Evolutions of the Army by [J.] Jebb. 5th ed. William Clowes and
Sons, London, 1857.
Lane, Richard B.
"Report of the Salvage Archaeology in the Area of the Redan During
January and February of 1965." Manuscript on file, National Historic
Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa. 1965.
Longford, Elizabeth Harman Pakenham, Countess of
Wellington: Pillar of State. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London,
"Signal Mast, Halifax Citadel." Manuscript on file, National Historic
Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1938.
A Treatise Containing the Elementary Part of Fortification,
Regular and Irregular, With Remarks on the Construction of the Most
Celebrated Authors. J. Nourse, London, 1746. Reprinted by Museum
Restoration Service, Ottawa, 1968.
A Treatise of Artillery: . . . To Which is Prefixed an
Introduction with a Theory of Powder Applied to Fire-Arms, 3rd ed.
John Millan, Whitehall, 1780. Reprinted by Museum Restoration Service,
Nelson, Richard John
"Discussion and Project for an Enceinte." Papers on Subjects
Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers, n.s.,
Vol. 1 (1851), pp. 14-20. Chatham.
"Fragments of the Composition and Construction of Military Reports."
Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal
Engineers, n.s., Vol. 7 (1858), pp. 73-80. Chatham.
"Syllabus of the Studies, Duties, &c., of an Officer of the Royal
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Corps of Royal Engineers, n.s., Vol. 7 (1858), pp. 130-3.
Nova Scotia. Public Archives.
Royal Engineer Papers, Nova Scotia Command, especially RE8 through
RE13, letter books, English correspondence, 1826-58; RE17-23, Ordnance
letters, 1824-58; RE24-7, numbered correspondence from the
Fortifications department, 1826-55; RE28-33, local correspondence.
1826-55; RE54, Citadel correspondence, 1825-43; RE55, Citadel accounts,
1828-48; RE56, Citadel correspondence and estimates, 1835-47.
"Memorandum on the Use of Asphalte, Communicated by Col. Oldfield,
Royal Engineers." Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the
Corps of Royal Engineers, n.s., Vol. 3 (1853), pp. 132-48.
"Copy of a Report on the Demolition of the old Magazine in the
Citadel of Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the 7th of April, 1847 . . ."
Corps Papers, and Memoirs on Military Subjects, compiled from
Contributions of the Officers of The Royal Engineers and the East India
Company's Engineers, 3rd Series. Vol. 1 (1849-50), pp. 214-6.
The Evolution of the Halifax Fortress; 1749-1928. Rev. ed.
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Raddall, Thomas H.
Halifax: Warden of the North. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto,
Raudzens, George Karl
"The British Ordnance Department." Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Yale University, New Haven, 1970.
"Gun Equipment, Halifax Citadel." Manuscript on file, National
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Rivington's Notes on Building Construction Arranged to Meet the
Requirement of the Syllabus of the Science and Art Department of the
Committee of Cultural Education, South Kensington.
2d ed. Rivington's, London, 1889. 4 vols.
"Report on the Siege Operations Carried on at Juliers in September
1860, for the Instruction of the Prussian Army, Especially with
Reference to Rifled Guns." Papers on Subjects Connected with the
Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers, n.s., Vol. 10 (1861), pp.
Rudyerd, C. W.
Course of Artillery at the Royal Military Academy as Established
by His Grace the Duke of Richmond Master General of His Majesty's
Ordnance &c. &c. &c. N.p., n.p., 1793. Reprinted by
Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, 1970.
Smyth, Sir James Carmichael
Precis of the Wars in Canada, from 1755 to the Treaty of Ghent in
1814. With Military and Political Reflections. Ed. Sir James
Carmichael. Tinsley Brothers, London, 1862.
Stacey, Charles Perry
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Canada and the British Army, 1846-1871: A Study in the Practice of
Responsible Government, Longmans, Green, London and New York,
The Military Problems of Canada: A Survey of Defence Policies and
Strategic Conditions Past and Present. Ryerson, Toronto, .
Stokes, P. D.
"Report, Halifax Citadel Officers' Quarters Casemates." Manuscript on
file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, n.d.
Introductory Essay to the Study of Fortification for young
Officers of the Army. William Allen, London, 1857.
Talman, James J.
"A Secret Military Document, 1825." American Historical
Review, Vol. 38 (1932-33), pp. 295-300.
The Annual Register, or A View of the History, Politics and
Literature, for the year. . . .
J. Dodsley, London, 1758-19. 81 vols. 1792, 1815, 1819-36.
The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book.
Containing the Services and Progress of Promotion of the Generals,
Lieutenant Generals. Major-Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels, and
Majors of the Army, According to Seniority: With Details of the
Principal Military Events of the Last Century.
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Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of
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Whitfield, Carol M.
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to the Canadian Historical Association, 1974.
Wilson, A. E.
"Halifax Citadel: Tunnel at West Ravelin, Operation 288." Manuscript
on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1967.
"Salvage Excavation at Halifax Citadel, Tunnel at West Ravelin."
Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa,
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Woods, Nicholas Augustus
The Prince of Wales in Canada and the United States. Bradbury
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